Employees who attended upper secondary schools in central Israel (the center) earn nearly 11% more than those from the country's periphery. This study, examining all Israelis born in 1978-85 and employed during 2012-16, focuses on the relationship between wage gaps and differences in the quantity and quality of schooling, while controlling for many other characteristics affecting wages. The number of matriculation (bagrut) study units in mathematics (a higher number of units indicates a higher level of study) is found to have a much greater impact on future earnings than the number of matriculation units in other subjects. Pupils from the center tend to study more math matriculation units, have higher matriculation scores and earn higher wages. The higher the share of individuals continuing to academic studies, and the higher that level of study, the smaller the wage gap between former pupils from the center and from the periphery. The study concludes that a substantial upgrade of periphery schools – particularly in the quality of their math education – should ensure better opportunities for their pupils in the labor market, and reduce income gaps between them and their counterparts from the center.